In order for modern day Christians to appropriate the mind of Christ in education, we must first establish a Biblically-sound philosophy or world view of education. Christian parents and teachers are embattled in a spiritual and cultural war for the very hearts and minds of our youth, and need spiritual weapons to wage the war.
God’s people are destroyed for lack of knowledge:
“My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I also will reject you from being My priest. Since you have forgotten the law of your God, I also will forget your children” (Hosea 4:6).
“Incline your ear and hear the words of the wise, and apply your mind to my knowledge; for it wil be pleasant if you keep them within you, that they may be ready on your lips. So that your trust may be in the Lord, I have taught you today, even you. Have I not written to you excellent things of counsels and knowledge, to make you know the certainty of the words of truth that you may correctly answer him who sent you?” (Proverbs 22:17-21).
“For the earth will be filed with the knowledge of the glory of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea” (Habakkuk 2:14).
Understanding the strategy used by Satan to de-Christianize education by removing the knowledge of the living God and His Word from the heart of education, by revising history to erase the remembrance of God’s Hand in the lives of men and nations, and by eradicating Godly standards and the Biblical vocabulary, imagery, and ideals from language and communication will help Christian teachers and parents to be alert and take action to be armed with effective weapons of warfare. Because most of us around the world have been educated in the world’s system through the philosophy of humanism, we are blind to these facts. Our understanding of God in history is limited to the Old and New Testament. Individual subjects are fragmented and void of Biblical principles. Man, rather than God, is glorified as the author of subjects in our textbooks. We have no sense of the wholeness of truth, how things fit together for God’s purposes and glory! Rarely is the unity of truth encountered in academia. There is little reasoning with the revelation of God’s Word in higher levels of learning.
The Bible has profound things to tell us, but many educators have not searched the Scriptures as it relates to academia or studied the life of Christ as Teacher. Western civilization has a history of having taught the revelation of the Bible and having taught students how to reason with the revelation of God’s Word, but this has been lost today in Christian education. Few are able to think Christianly, articulate and defend a Christian world view in the marketplace or persuade others to believe their view! While many pursue materialistic goals in education, the enemy has subtly stolen our Christian educational heritage. Our vocabulary has been stripped of Biblical imagery and ideals. We have lost the ideals of truth and beauty in our thought life and speech. Allan Bloom’s book (1988), The Closing of the American Mind, began with this disturbing statement: “There is one thing a professor can be absolutely certain of: almost every student entering the university believes, or says he believes, that truth is relative.”
Today around the world, the enemy has lured our children away from enjoying the written word through the overuse of the visual image. Think of the hours a day that the average Christian sits passively watching visual images in movies, television programs, cartoons, VCR’s, computers, the internet, video games, and computer courses. The written word has been abandoned for the visual image. How has this affected the physiological development of the brain? Current scientific research indicates that the brain is developing differently physiologically. How has the emphasis on the visual image rather than the written word impacted the ability of this generation to clothe ideas with words and effectively articulate thoughts. God obviously values the written and the spoken word. He spoke the creation of the universe into being, “In the beginning, God said….” God has revealed Himself through the written Word and the Incarnate Word, Jesus Christ!
If we are to raise a generation of youth who are spiritually and academically equipped, we have need to return to the Bible to consider and ponder God’s spiritual weapons and lively principles of education for the renewal of our minds and for application in our teaching and learning, in our curriculum design, and in our classroom methods! We have need to arm ourselves first with the spiritual weapons of warfare to bring down the centuries-old strongholds in the education of youth. We have need to acquire a “Biblical” vocabulary with which to communicate spiritual concepts, principles, and ideals to our students in our courses of study and in our relationships.
A lesson from Plato’s Simile of the Cave
In E. Christian Kopff’s The Devil Knows Latin (1999), he wrote about Book VII in Plato’s Republic which began with the great Simile of the Cave: “According to Plato, the Athenians of his day resembled men sitting in a dark cave, staring at a wall onto which other men, by holding up images in front of a fire, project shadows. The people sitting in the cave think that the reflections on the wall are reality. But one day a man gets up from his seat and turns around. He sees that the reflections are the creations of the people holding up the images. He goes outside and sees the real world and the sun, the source of both life and of knowledge. That is what Plato thought his contemporaries were like. And this is what we have become. We sit in a dark room, watching screens on which play reflections of images manipulated by people we do not see, and we take those reflections for reality. I remember as a teenager, when a local store caught on fire. A large crowd gathered to watch. Then about 11:00 p.m. the crowd disappeared. I found out later that they had gone home to watch the fire on television. That, not their own experience, was reality for them. I was surprised. (Frankly I was shocked!) Plato would not have been.” (pp. 311-12)
The lesson for the Christian from Plato’s Simile of the Cave is that God’s Word is the source of light that we need at the heart of teaching and learning, not the visual image, not the secular humanist’s perception of reality! Reality is found in relationship with Jesus Christ and His Word, the Bible. Kopff notes that “the decision to move from the easy delivery of the visual image to the written word involves effort and perhaps pain, because the sunlight will be too bright for our minds. We will also not receive much encouragement from the others sitting in the cave. Getting into the sun does not bring you money or position in life. It does bring you, however, a quality of life you can’t find elsewhere!” For the Christian, this means that we will have to program time in our day for reflection and meditation on the Word of God, the source of eternal Light!
“Thy word is a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path” (Psalm 119:105).
"The unfolding of Thy word gives light. It gives understanding to the simple” (Psalm 119:130).
“For the commandment is a lamp, and the teaching is light…” (Proverbs 6:23).
I am proposing that unless we actively employ the eternal and living Word of God in our teaching and learning, in the communication of ideas and principles, in the design of our courses of study, and in our methods of discipline and discipling, then we will fail to prepare this rising generation of youth to fulfill their divine calling.
Words inspire ideas. Ideas have consequences!
The Bible teaches us that words are spirit. Jesus Christ, the Incarnate Word, said, “My words are spirit and they are life” (John 6:63). Words are the very substance or building blocks of ideas. Words form mental images in the mind. We cannot think without words. Therefore, is it surprising that the enemy would target language to dumb it down and rob and pillage us of a Biblical vocabulary? God created us in His image and gave us the gift of language so that we might communicate with Him and with each other. Language reveals the character and love of God to us as He communicates with us and makes it possible for us to enjoy meaningful communication with our fellow man.
Words communicate ideas.
Words are the substance of thoughts, the foundation of our worldview or the filter through which we channel experiences and ideas, rule or judge their efficacy, formulate thoughts and clothe them with words for communicating with others. Ideas begin in the mind, the seat of liberty or bondage, the battleground for our future welfare! The Apostle Paul, Biblical scholar of the New Testament, clearly understood the spiritual and procreative power of words, thoughts, and ideas and wrote the following to the church at Corinth:
“Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man ’s wisdom teaches, but which the Holy Spirit teaches; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receives not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritualy discerned. But he that is spiritual judges al things, yet he himself is judged of no man. For who hath known the mind of the Lord, that he may instruct him? But we have the mind of Christ” (1 Corinthians 2: 12-16).
Ideas have consequences!
Word meanings inspire ideas that direct the pathway of our thinking and reasoning, that lead to choices and consequences! Mastering and communicating with a Biblical vocabulary in education is a high priority for Christian teachers and parents. When words are defined Biblically, they help us think and reason with the revelation of God’s Word, freeing us from secularism. This enables us to "take every thought captive to the obedience of Christ" and appropriate "the mind of Christ" in teaching and learning.
Words have great power for creating or destroying. God’s Word is both an offensive and a defensive weapon:
“For the word of God is living and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing as far as the division of soul and spirit, of both joints and marrow, and able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart (Hebrews 4:12).
“The Spirit gives life; the flesh counts for nothing. The words I have spoken to you are spirit and they are life” (John 6:33).
“Death and life are in the power of the tongue, and those who love it will eat its fruit” (Proverbs 18:21).
“A man will be satisfied with good by the fruit of his words…” (Proverbs 12:14).
“So will My word be which goes forth from My mouth; it wil not return to Me empty, without accomplishing what I desire, and without succeeding in the matter for which I sent it” (Isaiah 55:11).
“For by your words you will be justified, and by your words you wil be condemned” (Matthew 12:37).
“The grass withers, the flower fades, but the word of our God stands forever” (Isaiah 40:8).
“As for Me, this is My covenant with them, says the Lord: My Spirit which is upon you, and My words which I have put in your mouth shall not depart from your mouth, nor from the mouth of your offspring, nor from the mouth of your offspring's offspring, says the Lord, from now and forever” (Isaiah 59:21).
“The Word of the Lord endures forever. This is the word which was preached to you” (1 Peter 1:25).
Defining Our Terms:
One of the distinctives of an effective communicator or a great teacher is his or her ability to inspire listeners or students with the use of a noble vocabulary in communicating ideas. This is achieved through clothing ideas with precise word usage. Britain’s famous conservative prime minister Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) said, “If you would converse with me define your terms.” A communicator or teacher never assumes that his audience or student body fully understands the meanings of key words in his speech or lecture. A good communicator will always define his terms in order to establish his presuppositions or worldview in the subject he is addressing. To avoid miscommunication and confusion, teachers should always define their terms because words contain a philosophy of government. Examples follow:
Noah Webster’s original American Dictionary of the English Language(1828), for which he spent twenty years researching the root meanings as well as the scriptural meanings of words from the Bible, defines ‘educate’: “To bring up, as a child; to instruct; to inform and enlighten the understanding; to instill into the mind principles of arts, science, morals, religion and behavior. To educate children well is one of the most important duties of parents and guardians.”
Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1987), written 150 years later, defines ‘educate’: “To provide schooling for. To train by formal instruction and supervised practice, esp. in a skill, trade, or profession. To develop mentally, morally, or aesthetically esp. by instruction. To persuade or condition to feel, believe, or act in a desired way or to accept something as desirable. To educate a person or a thing.”
You can easily discern the philosophy of government in these two definitions: the first definition contains a Biblical view of education and the second definition a progressive view of education. We are called to equip the next generation with a Biblical, Christian worldview! This is the starting block—clothing ideas with a Biblical vocabulary!
Noah Webster (1758-1843), the father of American education and scholarship, has given us a powerful tool for study and communication which is still available today! The facsimile 1828 Dictionary is published by the Foundation for American Christian Education and can be found for free usage on the internet site: ChristianSoup.com. Take time to check into this site and use it for your teaching and writing. I have international graduate students and leaders that use this dictionary and translate the definitions into their languages for use with their students and teachers. I would also like to give you two other outstanding and free Bible study tool internet sites: BibleGateway.com (the Bible in 11 languages with study helps) and Crosswalk.com (Bible study helps in various translations, the Strong’s Concordance, lexicons, dictionaries, commentaries, church history, Foxe’s Book of Martyrs, and much more!)
The Power of God’s Word:
When working with young, pliant minds, it is essential for parents and teachers to establish the habit of beginning the search for principles and solutions in the Word of God, the Logos! It is the Divine Word that consecrates and inspires the mind and builds intellectual virtue. God has revealed two Words to man: the written Word and the Incarnate Word!
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. In Him was life, and the life was the Light of men…. And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth” (John 1:1-4; 14).
“What was from the beginning, what we have heard, what we have seen with our eyes, what we have looked at and touched with our hands, concerning the Word of Life—and the life was manifested, and we have seen and bear witness and proclaim to you the eternal life, which was with the Father and was manifested to us” (1 John 1:1).
“He is clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is caled The Word of God” (Revelation 19:13).
“You are our letter, written in our hearts, known and read by al men; being manifested that you are a letter of Christ, cared for by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts” (2 Corinthians 3:2-3).
“Then Moses came and recounted to the people all the words of the Lord and al the ordinances; and all the people answered with one voice and said, al the words which the Lord has spoken we wil do” (Exodus 24:3).
Example from the life of young king Josiah:
Josiah was only eight years old when his reign began as the eighteenth king of Judah. His great-grandfather was king Hezekiah, but his grandfather and father were “kings who did what was evil in the sight of the Lord.” Josiah, on the other hand, was a passionate reformer “who did what was right in the sight of the Lord.” At a young age, Josiah understood that his nation was in decay because of a spiritual sickness!
From his youth, he sought to clean up whatever he recognized as not being true worship of God. And in the process, God’s Word was rediscovered in the temple when Josiah was twenty-six years old! Josiah’s good intentions were united with the power of God’s written revelation. As the book of God’s Law was read to Josiah, he was shocked, frightened, and humbled to realize the huge gap that existed between his feeble efforts to lead the people as king and God’s expectations for His chosen nation! Josiah was immediately overcome with God’s holiness. He repented and exposed his people to the Holy, Living God. Josiah had a close and personal relationship with God and as king had the temple repaired, renewed the covenant, cleansed the high places of idols and the land of spiritualists and mediums, celebrated the Passover, and reformed the nation. He gathered all the people of his nation together in Jerusalem and personally read the newly found Law of God to them.
“Go, inquire of the Lord for me and the people and all Judah concerning the words of this book that has been found, for great is the wrath of the Lord that burns against us, because our fathers have not listened to the words of this book, to do according to all that is written concerning us. (2 Kings 22:13). …The king went up to the house of the Lord and al the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests and the prophets and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their hearing all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the Lord" (2 Kings 23:2).
The Word of God at the Heart of the Curriculum.
The Bible contains the highest literary form of language. It requires its readers to be literate! Everywhere the Gospel is preached, Christian education follows closely behind. It is imperative that the new believer be able to read the Word of God in his language. Everywhere the Bible is taught, scholarship rises, literacy increases, and language is enhanced. The standard of language spoken and written, has always been set by the church. In the history of Christian education, monasteries were the repositories of learning, churchmen the schoolmasters, and the Bible the fount of ennobled language and literacy.
The great Geneva Bible of Calvin and Knox became for the European reformers their primary reader, their first book of instruction, and their political textbook. It was the one book that sailed west to the New World with most families. Just as the Old Testament Jews came to be known as “people of the Word,” so were the thousands and thousands of reformers known as “people of the Word.” Modern day Christians need to reclaim this heritage using the Bible as their first book of instruction. Is it possible that we could be known in this century as the “people of the Word?”
I have put My words in your mouth and have covered you with the shadow of My hand, to establish the heavens, to found the earth, and to say…“You are My people.” (Isaiah 51:16)
God meant for His Word to be at the heart of teaching and learning! The Bible should be at the center of all Christian curricula, it’s light illuminating all subjects, all programs, and all methods. A study of the tools of restoration from the book of Nehemiah bears this out. Once the walls of Jerusalem had been reconstructed in Israel’s post-exilic era, the first thing governor Nehemiah did was to place Ezra, the high priest and educator, in the center of Jerusalem’s marketplace so that he could read the Law day and night to the spiritually famished Jews. There had been an absence of God’s Word in their education for nearly one hundred years. As Ezra and the Levites instructed the spiritually dry Jews from God’s Word, they often stopped to make clear the meaning so the people could understand what was being read [Nehemiah 8:1-8]. Hearing and understanding God’s Word sparked a spirit of corporate repentance and reformation. Ezra then taught them their Godly heritage by recounting God’s wondrous miracles and His mighty Hand of providence in their history. When their minds and hearts were illumined with truth, the Jews renewed their covenant with God and pledged allegiance to follow the Laws of God [Nehemiah 10:28-30]. From the Book of Nehemiah, Chapter 8:
“Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people for he was standing above al the people; and when he opened it, all the people stood up. Then Ezra blessed the Lord the great God. And all the people answered, ‘Amen, Amen!’ while lifting up their hands; then they bowed low and worshiped the Lord with their faces to the ground.
(versus 5 & 6) …They read from the book, from the law of God, translating to give the sense so that they understood the reading. Then Nehemiah, who was the governor, and Ezra the priest and scribe, and the Levites who taught the people said to al the people, “This day is holy to the Lord your God; do not mourn or weep. ” For all the people were weeping when they heard the words of the law. Then he said to them, Go, eat of the fat, drink of the sweet, and send portions to him who has nothing prepared; for this day is holy to our Lord. Do not be grieved, for the joy of the Lord is your strength. So the Levites calmed all the people, saying, ‘Be still, for the day is holy; do not be grieved.’ All the people went away to eat, to drink, to send portions and to celebrate a great festival, because they understood the words which had been made known to them. Then on the second day the heads of fathers' households of al the people, the priests and the Levites were gathered to Ezra the scribe that they might gain insight into the words of the law. (verses 8-13) …He read from the book of the law of God daily, from the first day to the last day. And they celebrated the feast seven days, and on the eighth day there was a solemn assembly according to the ordinance. ” (verse 18)
Methodology for cultivating a Biblical vocabulary and deriving Biblical principles:
Key Word Study: heritage
Please study the following Key Word Study* as a methodology for building a Biblical vocabulary and deducing Biblical principles. The Key Word Study will assist you in research and study, as well as in receiving Godly revelation and leading ideas for application in your teaching and learning.
- The word being studied is defined from Webster’s 1828 Dictionary (http://www.christiantech.com) and key words in the definition are bold:
heritage, noun [French, from the root heir]
- Inheritance; an estate that passes from an ancestor to an heir by descent or course of law; that which is inherited.
- In Scripture, the saints or people of God are called His heritage, as being claimed by Him, and the objects of His special care. (I Peter 5)
- Key words within the definition are defined
- An estate given or possessed by donation or divine appropriation. Num.26.
- That which is possessed or enjoyed. “Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance.” Ps.2.
heir, noun [L. haeres.]
- The man who succeeds, or is to succeed another in the possession of lands, by descent.
- One who inherits or takes from an ancestor.
- One who succeeds to the estate of a former possessor. (Jeremiah 49; Micah 1)
- One who is entitled to possess. In Scripture, saints are called heirs of the promise, heirs of righteousness, heirs of salvation, etc., by virtue of the death of Christ and of God’s gracious promises.
- To receive by nature from a progenitor. The son inherits the virtues of his father; the daughter inherits the temper of her mother, and children often inherit the constitutional infirmities of their parents.
- To possess; to enjoy; to take as a possession, by gift or divine appropriation; as, to inherit everlasting life; to inherit the promises. “That thou mayest live, and inherit the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.” Deuteronomy 16. “The meek shall inherit the earth.” Matthew 5.
- Relevant Scriptures are recorded:
- The Lord is the portion of my inheritance and my cup; Thou dost support my lot. The lines have fallen to me in pleasant places; indeed, my heritage is beautiful to me (Psalm 16:5-6).
- Lo, children are a heritage of the Lord (Psalm 1 27:3).
- And He gave their land as a heritage, a heritage to Israel His peoples (Psalm 135:1).
- Thy testimonies have I taken as an heritage for ever: for they are the rejoicing of my heart (Psalm 119:111).
- And everyone who has left houses or brothers or sisters or father or mother or children or farms for My name's sake, will receive many times as much, and will inherit eternal life (Matthew 1 9:2 9).
- And the Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit that we are the children of God: And if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ, if so be that we suffer with him that we may be also glorified with him (Romans 8:16-17).
- That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirsaccording to the hope of eternal life (Titus 5:7).
- A personal definition is written and related to the study and to life:
“Heritage is property that passes from an ancestor to an heir. God called Israel His inheritance or heritage. In the New Testament, God’s people are His heritage. Therefore, I am called His child, His heir, and am a joint-heirwith Christ.”
- Biblical principles are deduced from the study and enable the student to “take possession” of the word:
- Eternal life through grace is my heritage as a Christian.
- God’s Word, the Bible, is also my heritage.
- As a Christian, I am God’s heir and a joint-heir with Christ and should govern myself accordingly.
- As an American Christian, I enjoy the heritage of Christian traditions and a system of law based upon the Bible. This is an inheritance from my earthly Christian ancestors that provides freedom for me to live as a child of God and to exercise my God-given rights in my daily life.
- I should guard and nurture my Christian heritage above all other possessions.
- I have a responsibility to share the Gospel, leading others to their eternal inheritanceas a child of God.
- The written record of the study is filed in the student’s notebook for future reference and use.
* Taken from The Noah Plan Self-Directed Seminar by Elizabeth Youmans, copyright 1997, published by the Foundation for American Christian Education, San Francisco, California.
Using the Bible as a reader.
The historic record of America’s founding and constitutional eras reveals that parents taught their children to read from the Bible when they were very young. The westward migration of the European reformers to the North American continent brought parents who took seriously their role to educate their children in the admonition and nurture of the Lord! Early trained to reflect upon and reason with God’s Word, these young colonial children “read and recited, quoted and consulted, early committed to memory and constantly searched it for meaning. It remained throughout the century the single most important cultural influence in the lives of Anglo-Americans.” (Cremin, American Education, the Colonial Experience, 1970, p. 40)
The emphasis on the Bible as the "first book of instruction" produced individuals of ennobled Christian character and scholarship, who cherished individual liberty with Law and birthed the first Christian constitutional republic in the world. A people whose "textbook of liberty" is the Bible, who know how to reason with the revelation of God’s Word in every area of life, are not easily deceived or subverted.
Dr. Benjamin Rush (1745-1813), distinguished pioneering physician, one of the youngest signers of the Declaration of Independence, and founder of a Bible Society, wrote A Defence of the Use of the Bible in Schools to support his idea that the Bible should be the primary textbook in the schools of the new United States of America. You will be very inspired by his defense which I have located at this free web site: http://www.biblebelievers.com/Bibleinschools.html.
The Noah Plan, the Principle Approach curriculum published in the U.S.A. by the Foundation for American Christian Education, also includes a Reading Program for children ages 5-13 that uses the Bible as a primary reader. This Reading Curriculum Guide can be purchased and used by any teacher or homeschooler that can read English. It’s program can be added to any curriculum. Any educational system that teaches children how to read from the Word of God will be favored and blessed by God. On the following web site is a brief overview of the benefits of using the Bible as a reader with children: http://www.face.net/Articles/biblereader.htm .
I pray you have been challenged to think about your own education and its limitations and the educational standards of your nation today! I pray you comprehend that words are spirit and are the substance that clothes ideas for expression and communication. Many of you have asked me what you can do to reform and revitalize the curriculum for your children, whether in schools or in home school settings. Restoring the Bible to its rightful place at the heart of the curriculum and of thinking and reasoning, rather than pasting Scripture verses over a secular curriculum is the beginning step. Using the Bible as a primary reader with young children will empower them with the Bread of Life. Words are spirit and God’s Word is alive. May we take up this Sword of the Spirit and wield it wisely in our educational settings. I welcome your discussion of this topic and pray that each of you has been given insights by the Holy Spirit with which to take action.
- Read the methodology of the Key Word Study. Reflect upon the way principles are deduced from the Scripture and applied to one’s life in this methodology. This will transform the way you write about a subject and teach a lesson plan. It will help you develop curriculum for your school or your children. It is a transforming method for teachers and communicators often providing the pathway of reasoning through a subject.
- Select a word of your choice (such as enlighten, teach, learn, serve, etc.) and using the Webster 1828 Dictionary on-line at http://christiantech.com , define the word and the key words within the definition. Then using the Bible study tools on-line at http://bible.crosswalk.com, look up relevant scripture verses. Write you own definition of the word, write out the principles you deduced from your study and apply them to your own calling and life and to the subject you are teaching.
For Christ, His Story in the Nation, Elizabeth Youmans, Ed.D.
If you have never read Dorothy Sayers essay on the “Lost Tools of Learning,” I recommend that you read it. Sayers, a mid 20th century English mystery writer and essayist, delivered this essay as a speech in 1947. Her essay has caused many American Christian educators in the last decade to restore the medieval classical model of education using the trivium and quadrivium. Her essay is worthy of reading because it gets to the heart of the problem with modern education: We teach our children everything except the “art of learning!” You can find her essay on the Escondido Tutorial Service website.
© Principia Forum Two, February, 2001
More articles are available at Chyrsalis International.
You may use this material as long as Principia and Elizabeth Youmans' name are credited with the date. If you translate the materials, please send a copy to Elizabeth Youmans, firstname.lastname@example.org.